Grafting is the most used propagation method in viticulture but is limited in practice by inconsistent graft success and difficulties in predicting graft compatibility of proposed scion–rootstock combinations. The authors note: ‘By observing the internal anatomy of the union, we found that grapevines might require longer times for graft healing than anticipated.….’

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Tedesco et al. Figure 2a_Characterisation of grafts

Fig. 2a: Internal characterization of the graft union. (a) Example images of the category A to E charactering the internal graft unions. Category A represents a perfect union in which the graft line is almost invisible. Category B shows few structural imperfections and/or slight discontinuities between wood and bark or cambial invaginations. Category C is characterized by bark discontinuities and D by wood discontinuities. Category E includes broken/unattached unions and/or unions with dead tissue in proximity of the union line.